Chicken meat eating up its competition

Remember when chicken was a special treat, to be shared by the whole family on the occasional Sunday or only for a special celebration?

No? Then you are obviously a fair bit younger than me (most people are). So let me take you back half a century…

Prior to the mid-1960s, chicken meat primarily came from the processing of laying hens at the end of their productive life, or surplus cockerels from the egg industry. Improved breeds of chicken, specifically bred for the purpose of meat production, started to make an impact on the availability of chicken meat from that point, and this was when statistics started to be collected on chicken meat production and consumption for the first time.

Back then, Australians consumed approximately 5 kg per person a year. This represented a miniscule 5% of all meat eaten by Australians.

How things have changed!

On 6 March 2018, ABARES released updated statistics on Australia’s agricultural commodities, including forecasts for commodity production in 2017-18, and five year forward projections ( and just look at how we’ve grown!

In 2017-18 ABARES forecasts that Australians will consume approximately 49 kg per person. That’s a whopping 44% of all meat (excluding fish and seafood) consumed in Australia.

The graph below shows just how much our meat consumption habits have changed just in the past two decades.


And the rise of chicken meat won’t stop there. In another 5 years, chicken meat consumption is projected to have climbed to 51.5 kg per person per annum, eating into the share held by competitor meats and creeping inevitably towards ‘owning’ 50% of all meat consumed in Australia.

How has this been possible? Well, put it down to chicken’s unique combination of:
• Consistent quality
• Versatility
• Appeal to a broad demographic
• Nutritional value
• Affordability, made possible by the industry’s six decades of attention to improvements in productivity and efficiency, and adoption of improved genetics, better feeding and health programs, and improved husbandry practices.

And a little help from our friends who like to eat chicken!

Eating chicken helps you to feel full – here’s why

A previous blog ( ) discussed some of the ways in which lean chicken can contribute to achieving your healthy weight goals, and the reasons for this. High amongst these was that:

  • Chicken meat has the equivalent protein content of beef, lamb and pork. One 100g serve of chicken breast provides more than 50% of the recommended dietary intake of protein.
  • Higher protein diets can play a role in helping some people lose weight and maintain weight loss.
  • Protein consumption is generally accepted to make you feel ‘fuller’ than consumption of carbohydrate or fat, and helps to overcome the sensation of ‘feeling hungry’, which people often give as a key reason that they fail to achieve their weight loss goals.

But how does this work?

Well, it has long been known that certain nutrients in foods – specifically, amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins – are very efficient nutrients in satisfying hunger. It is well understood that this is in part because protein-rich foods are more slowly digested, and they keep blood glucose levels relatively constant, thereby reducing those food cravings that can often occur soon after we’ve already eaten a meal.

However, some new research has shown that these nutrients also directly tell our brains that we should no longer be hungry and has provided some new insights into why it is that eating certain foods, including chicken meat, makes us feel full, overcoming the sensation of lingering hunger that can drive us to overeat.

The research, conducted by researchers at the University of Warwick in the UK and published in the scientific journal Molecular Metabolism in November 2017, for the first time identified cells in the brain – called tanycytes – which detect specific nutrients in food and respond by triggering feelings of satiety (‘fullness’), thereby controlling appetite. A summary of this research can be found here

The research identified two amino acids – arginine and lysine – that react most with tanycytes, and which therefore are likely to make you feel fuller.

Some foods have more of these amino acids than others – and, guess what? Chicken is a great source of these amino acids!

Add these two additional facts:

  • lean chicken cuts are low in fat and, importantly, more than 55% of what fat is present is unsaturated fat
  • chicken meat remains by far the most affordable lean meat for Australian consumers

and you now have three very good reasons why lean chicken meat is great dietary choice for maintaining a healthy body weight.

Biosecurity: ‘5 Minutes with…A Farm Manager’ by Guest Blogger: Phil Pirone

It’s National Agriculture Day! So we thought we’d dedicate this month’s blog to “5 minutes with a farmer”, reported by guest blogger Phil Pirone.

What does biosecurity mean for the chicken industry, and what practices are adopted? We talk to Farm Manager, Paul Frank, about biosecurity and the farm he manages north of Adelaide to find out more…

How would you explain biosecurity?

“Biosecurity is all about keeping the chickens, and people, free from disease or illness,” Paul says.

He believes that without adequate biosecurity the entire livelihood of the farm would be at risk.

“Day-to-day adherence to biosecurity takes up only minimal amounts of my time yet provides significant preventive benefits to my farm.”

Why is biosecurity important?

“We try our hardest to keep the birds as healthy as possible; we want to avoid any sort of contamination and reduce the introduction of outside disease,” Paul says.

“Without adhering to biosecurity processes a very realistic outcome is the introduction of disease or infection of birds, which can subsequently lead to serious productivity, welfare and profitability issues.

If biosecurity isn’t treated properly we can see some negative outcomes; the worst case scenario would be sick birds leading to the entire loss of a flock.”

Can you provide an example of some of the biosecurity measures you implement?

One important aspect is the biosecurity measures in place for visitors to the farm.
On any given day external employees or visitors may enter Paul’s farm. It is crucial that anyone wishing to enter the area adheres to relevant biosecurity procedures.

“Washing stations at shed and farm entry points are present and must be utilised by staff and visitors,” Paul says.

“Vehicles also pose a biosecurity risk, especially if travelling from farm to farm, so we ensure they are clean before entering the premises.”

Living on site makes the biosecurity process easier for Paul as he isn’t going to and from the workplace daily thereby reducing overall risk of him introducing any outside bacteria or disease.

Noting that biosecurity isn’t just about protecting the farm from the entry of pests and diseases, it’s also about minimising establishment and spread, Paul commented “Diligence to biosecurity at all times is crucial, even between batches or flocks of birds. Between each flock our sheds are thoroughly washed and sanitised in order kill off any bacteria or virus that may remain from the previous flock.”

Paul ensures that sufficient time has elapsed between batches in order to break the pathogen cycle.

How do you keep informed on best practice in biosecurity?

“Biosecurity has almost always existed in some sense but its importance and prominence has definitely risen over the years,” Paul says.

A greater awareness of biosecurity through increased training and education has ensured that principles are diligently followed by Paul, his employees, and anyone else entering a farm.

The chicken industry has had in place for many years a detailed set of procedures to manage biosecurity risks on farms (see National Farm Biosecurity Manual for Chicken Growers), and implementation of biosecurity practices is a part of everyday business for an Australian chicken farm. The National Biosecurity Manual for Chicken Growers is currently being reviewed by the ACMF to ensure the recommended measures are still relevant, particularly since the significant Avian Influenza outbreaks in the EU and USA in the past couple of years.

An overview of chicken farm biosecurity has been turned into an online video ( and other resources can be found on the ACMF website ( and the Australian Farm Biosecurity website (


The Dos and Don’ts of Chicken Food Safety!

Chicken tartare, carpaccio or sashimi, anyone? No! I think pretty much everyone understands that you shouldn’t eat raw chicken and why (read more here about why… but given recent servings of chicken sashimi overseas we thought it a timely reminder to look at the dos and don’ts that relate to raw chicken meat and food safety.

Food Safety

Food Safety

1. DON’T wash raw chicken before cooking it

Raw chicken meat doesn’t need to be washed before cooking but, more importantly, it shouldn’t be washed! Washing raw chicken risks splashing chicken juices and any accompanying bacteria around the kitchen onto benches, prepared foods and utensils etc. Modern chicken processing conditions and practices ensure that raw chicken meat reaches your home with as little bacteria on it as possible, but there can still be some bacteria present. Washing chicken creates an opportunity for cross-contamination within in the kitchen and cross-contamination is a big contributor to foodborne illness. The things that it is important to ensure get washed in a kitchen are items that come into contact with raw foods…especially hands.

2. DO cook chicken thoroughly

Always! Cooking chicken thoroughly easily kills the bacteria of concern in a food safety context that can potentially be associated with chicken. To check, if you have a food thermometer, it should reach at least 75°C when inserted to the deepest (thickest) part of the meat; if you don’t have a food thermometer, the juices should run clear (not pink) when you pierce the meat with a fork or skewer to the thickest part of the meat and the colour of the meat should be consistently white when cut in half at the thickest point.

3. DON’T defrost frozen chicken on the bench

Never! Raw chicken meat should always be thawed below 5°C, which usually means in the fridge, or by using a microwave. The microwave is fastest but can damage the quality of the chicken if you’re not careful so often the easiest way is to defrost gradually overnight in the fridge because this maintains the safety and quality of the meat. To prevent cross-contamination with other foods in the fridge, put the meat in a container which prevents juices dripping on other food items and/or put it on the bottom shelf.

4. DO wash your hands…boards, hands, knives, containers…

While the risk from chicken meat itself is gone after cooking (assuming it’s thoroughly cooked and consumed or refrigerated within 2 hours), cross-contamination from whatever came in contact with the raw meat before it was cooked still exists. So things like knives, chopping boards and particularly hands and anything they’ve touched such as towels, can still have bacteria from the raw meat present on them. It’s easy to see how the bacteria can be transferred from these things to foods that are consumed raw (like salads) or food that’s already been cooked, and because there is no additional cooking step to kill the bacteria the food gets eaten along with any cross-contaminating bacteria! So either have utensils and boards specifically for raw meat or clean them immediately after use for raw meat and before use on anything else. But always wash your hands!

5. DON’T let raw chicken meat come in contact with other foods in the fridge

Cross-contamination is possible not just during preparation in the kitchen, it can occur during food storage too. Always separate raw chicken and other foods in the fridge so raw chicken juices can not drip or spill onto or in any other way come in contact with other foods.

6. It’s OK to refreeze defrosted chicken

YES it is! This was covered in a recent Chook Chat blog ( It is safe to put defrosted chicken back into the freezer, but, only if the chicken was defrosted as described in 3 above and wasn’t ‘defrosting’ for longer than 24 hours at this temperature. The myth that it is not safe to re-freeze chicken meat that has been defrosted arises from confusing two issues: quality and safety. While it is safe to put chicken that has been defrosted below 5°C back into the freezer, freezing and re-freezing chicken may result in a deterioration in the quality (taste and texture) of the meat.

The ACMF website provides lots of hints and recommendations for safe handling and cooking of chicken; go to

What’s going on here?

DSC_0668 Social chicks

What are the chickens in this photo doing? And why are they all bunched up together, I hear you ask?

Well, chickens are by nature social animals; they live in flocks.

In the wild, or in a backyard situation, this flocking behaviour provides individual birds with protection from predators and also allows them to keep warm (particularly important for baby chicks up until the age that they develop their proper feathers).

On commercial meat chicken farms, the barns that chickens are housed in provide them with protection from predation, and are equipped with heaters and ventilation systems to manage the environment at the ideal temperatures for their age at any point in time. Nevertheless, chickens continue to exhibit a comprehensive range of social behaviours relevant to their age

Their desire for social contact is perhaps most noticeable when they are resting – as many of the baby chicks in this photo are – when ‘clumps’ of resting chickens can clearly be seen throughout their barn.

However, this behaviour can also be used by farmers to monitor whether their chickens are comfortable. Too much clumping together, particularly if it is concentrated in the middle of the barn, could mean that the chickens are too cold; not enough clumping together could mean that the environment in the barn is too hot. Concentration of chickens around the walls of the barn can often mean that the temperature in the barn is too hot, as it is usually the case that it is cooler along the walls of the barn. Avoidance of certain parts of the barn floor could mean that the bedding in some parts of the barn isn’t ideal. All of these signs are used by farmers to monitor the ‘comfort level’ of their flock and to take action accordingly. Ideally, small groups of chickens should be evenly distributed across the floor of the entire barn.

So, what can this photo tell us about how comfortable these chickens are?

Let’s pan out and see:

DSC_0668 Pan


Looks OK!

By the way, did you wonder what the plastic chain is in the top photo? It’s there to provide something for the chicks to peck at, if they are interested.

If you are interested to learn more about the behaviours that chickens display on commercial chicken farms, and how farmers use chicken behaviour to monitor the health and welfare of their flocks, then have a look (and a listen!) to our previous blog at

Why didn’t the chicken cross the road?

…or the oceans, in the case of chicken meat available to Australian consumers.

Consumers often associate the beef and lamb that they buy as having been grown in Australia, but are not so confident about the origin of their chicken meat.

Well, good news! Almost all chicken meat available for you to buy in Australia is grown domestically!

To protect Australian agriculture and consumers from diseases of poultry, including those that can also infect wild birds, raw chicken meat from all other countries can only be imported under strict protocols. To date poultry producers in other countries have been unable to meet these requirements. The exception to this is chicken grown in New Zealand, which has a similar favourable disease status to Australia.

Not only do these restrictions on importation protect our local poultry flocks and wild birds, they also protect Australians from a range of public health risks that are more prevalent in some other countries.

Only some highly processed, fully retorted or cooked in-packaging chicken meat products can currently be imported. The high temperatures and prolonged cooking used to treat these products effectively sterilizes them. These foods – which include products such as canned chicken and some soups – account for only a small amount (less than 1%) of the chicken consumed in Australia.

While no raw chicken meat is able to cross any ocean, a small amount of chicken meat is imported from New Zealand – but that doesn’t count, because that’s only crossing a sea!

So consumers can be assured that, aside from a minuscule quantity of product from New Zealand, all fresh and frozen raw chicken meat and virtually all further processed and cooked chicken products that are offered for sale in Australia have been produced in Australia (and I mean the chickens have been grown on Australian farms, and processed in Australian processing plants, to Australian standards).

What about the future?

Australia’s tight biosecurity arrangements and protocols will hopefully continue to ensure that Australian consumers and our chicken flocks are protected from the risks of imported chicken meat, but there are always threats that these arrangements will be undermined and both the industry and consumers need to be vigilant.

Think I’m exaggerating these risks? Well consider the impacts of White Spot disease, a highly contagious viral disease of crustaceans including prawns, crabs, yabbies and lobsters that was introduced into Australia in imported prawns last year. Following its discovery on Queensland prawn farms back in November 2016 the disease has had a devastating impact on Queensland’s $87 million farmed prawn industry. Fortunately, white spot disease only affects crustaceans; it does not pose a threat to human health or food safety. But another example shows that Australian consumers can also be exposed to food safety risks through imports. Remember the frozen berries recalls in February 2015, then again in June 2017? These stemmed from imported frozen berries which were linked to hepatitis A cases in Australia.

We know that Australians want to know more about the origin of the food they’re consuming. The good news for those concerned that their chicken meat has been grown and produced in Australia to Australia’s high standards of food safety and animal welfare, is that from 1 July 2018, Australia’s new country of origin labelling standards will come into force and will require most foods (including all chicken products) to be labelled to indicate where they came from. To understand the new laws and what the labels means, and to learn how to recognise your chicken has been produced in Australia, see

In the meantime, continue to enjoy your homegrown Aussie chicken, safe in the knowledge that it has been produced here in Australia, by Australian farmers, and to the highest standards.

Nerdy chickens? Supporting chicken welfare with science

by guest blogger, Dr Kylie Hewson*

The viability of the Australian chicken meat industry depends on the implementation of good welfare practices every day, for every flock, and this has been recognised since the start of the commercial industry back in the 1950s. Not only do farmers have an obligation to protect and respect the birds under their care, they also know that providing a high level of care for birds is what their customers want and the community expects, and it also contributes to productivity and a quality product. The livelihood of farmers therefore depends on them providing for good standards of animal welfare

So what is good welfare, and how can research, development and education contribute to ensuring that chickens that are raised for human consumption are kept at high standards of health and welfare?

Past research has demonstrated that good welfare is not achieved by focussing on single factors or meeting discreet design features of the chicken’s environment. Welfare is multi-factorial, and many factors impact on the welfare outcome for flocks of chickens, including weather (especially temperature and humidity), disease and health status, the type and standard of housing provided, access to and quality of feed and water, quality of the management (husbandry and stockmanship) provided by the farmer and air quality; the list goes on and on. All of these are interlinked and need to be managed on a daily basis by farmers – because of this, all of these factors, and combinations of them, have been the focus of past and present research projects.

The Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC; manages the levy funding that the chicken companies provide for research on all aspects of chicken production, including bird welfare.

Determining the standard of welfare achieved without anthropomorphising (to ascribe human form or attributes to), can be incredibly difficult because we can’t ask the chickens directly. Not only do chickens have different needs to us, they meet them differently too. For example, when it’s cold outside a human may put on a jumper, but we know we don’t need to put jumpers on chickens because we know that birds naturally group together to keep warm. So, the focus of welfare research is on providing objective information on what constitutes high welfare and how to achieve, and maintain, it.

welfare assessment RDE1 (002)Areas of research that are currently being undertaken relate to free range, including how and when birds use the range, and how to reduce the trade-offs between systems, how to measure welfare (particularly trying to identify measures that can be used practically on farm) and how to manage breed traits that potentially impact on welfare (see the Chicken Family Tree blog for more information on chicken breeding: There is also research investigating aspects of farm management that can impact chicken welfare such as maintaining the quality of bedding provided to birds, ventilation management and the usefulness of perches.

As agriculture becomes more tech-savvy, the chicken industry too is looking at ways that technology can help farmers manage bird welfare. For example, the RIRDC Chicken Meat Program is looking at early detection of bird welfare issues through monitoring levels and patterns of activity of the flock as a whole that farmers can be alerted to a potential issue.

As any researcher can tell you, there is never an end to research because there is never an end to the possibilities for continual refinement and improvement of practices, particularly as things like technology progress and better ways to do things are discovered.

So the next time you’re enjoying a meal that includes chicken, stop to think about all the researchers that contribute to the quality of life and quality of product that you’re eating and all the effort that is put into keeping it that way – and if you know of anyone that ‘speaks chicken’ I hope they choose a career as a poultry scientist!

*Dr Kylie Hewson is Research Manager of the Chicken Meat Program of RIRDC

Shower On, Shower Off

“What’s this got to do with chickens?” I hear you say.

Well, in some parts of the chicken production business, quite a lot!

Why? Because it’s one of the many biosecurity measures that may be implemented by industry to protect flocks from infectious disease.

What’s biosecurity?

From a chicken industry perspective, biosecurity refers to a set of preventative measures designed to stop the introduction and subsequent spread of diseases, thereby protecting flocks, individual farms and the industry more broadly from the impacts of infectious diseases (see more at They also aim to prevent the spread of other pathogens that could potentially have human health consequences. Therefore, biosecurity is all about keeping the chickens, and people, free from disease or illness.

The chicken industry has had in place for many years a detailed set of procedures to manage biosecurity risks on farms (see National Farm Biosecurity Manual for Chicken Growers), and implementation of biosecurity practices is a part of everyday business for an Australian chicken farm.

What sorts of biosecurity measures does a chicken farm implement?

There are a range of measures that would typically apply on an Australian chicken farm. They include:

  • Limit contact with other animals (particularly other poultry and wild birds), for example by bird-proofing chicken barns with wire netting or, on farms which have access to an outside range, by ensuring the range, as far as possible, does not attract or provide habitat for wild birds or rodents, for example by keeping the range tidy, well drained, and the grass mown to prevent seeding…oh yes, and not leaving feed and water out on the range!
  • Make sure feed and water is clean and uncontaminated, for example by only using town water, or treating (eg by chlorination) any otherwise untreated surface water (such as from a dam or river) that might be used on the farm.
  • Limit vehicle/equipment movements onto and around the farm, and clean and disinfect equipment that has might have been on another farm prior to farm entry (and particularly entry into the areas where the chickens live).
  • Limit risks of people bringing disease and pathogens onto the farm and contaminating the chickens. That’s right – people present a significant biosecurity risk themselves; they can bring in disease on to farms on their hands, hair, skin, clothing and footwear…even potentially in the breath they exhale! Here’s some examples of what farmers can (and do) do to reduce this risk:
    • limit visitors, and control visitor movements;
    • make sure that staff, contractors and visitors have not had recent contact with other poultry farms or birds (including at home);
    • require any farm visitors to change into freshly laundered clothing and footwear on the farm, or to put on protective coveralls and over-boots prior to entering a barn or range area;
    • anyone entering a barn (including the farmer and staff) to use disinfectant foot baths and hand washes at the barn entry.


And what about those showers?

Well, in those parts of the chicken production cycle where disease presents the greatest risks to the total operation – for example, breeder farms, which supply the fertile eggs which are hatched to produce the chickens that might ultimately go out onto many, many farms; or at hatcheries, where an infection could likewise be spread to very susceptible baby chicks with as yet incompletely developed immune systems, and which may also end up going out to many, many farms – even more stringent biosecurity measures need to be implemented.

One of these is usually that any staff and visitors to the facility can only enter through a shower facility where they must have a complete head to toe shower and change into a complete new set of freshly laundered clothing provided by the facility on the other side, with no personal items to be taken onto the facility, without prior decontamination. In the case of some extremely biosecure facilities, the process must be repeated again on the way out. A visit to one of these facilities can result in a very bad hair day for many visitors – I’ve done it, so I can speak from experience here!


Is the system infallible?

No – chicken farms contain many live animals; they receive fresh air from the ambient area (which can also carry airborne microorganisms) and have many contacts with the world outside the farm; they are working farms, not containment facilities. So equally important in the industry’s health program are other preventative measures, such as vaccination and farm hygiene, and being able to recognise and immediately respond to signs or suspicion that something may have breached biosecurity barriers. Together, biosecurity, other preventative measures and actions (including vaccination), and the ability to recognise and preparedness to respond to a disease, are the most important tools the Australian chicken industry has to keep its flocks healthy and safe from diseases and pathogens.

For those interested in learning more about what biosecurity means for the chicken industry, and what practices are adopted, there will be a new biosecurity video available in the coming months…I’ll let ChookChat followers know when it’s released.

Lean chicken’s contribution to the ‘bottom line’

How many times have you heard it reported that Australia is in the grip of an obesity epidemic?

Well, to help to address this, this week (13 – 19 February) the Dietitians Association of Australia (DAA) is organising online initiatives and a series of activities around Australia in support of Australia’s Healthy Weight Week (AHWW). AHWW is an initiative of the DAA aimed at raising awareness of the importance of achieving and maintaining a healthy weight and lifestyle.

The ACMF is proud to be a sponsor of Australia’s Healthy Weight Week 2017, now in it’s tenth year.

In a previous blog (Can chicken help long term weight loss?) I explained some of the attributes of lean chicken meat that contribute to maintaining a healthy ‘waistline’, which include:

  • Chicken meat has the equivalent protein content of beef, lamb and pork.
  • One 100g serve of chicken breast provides more than 50% of the recommended dietary intake of protein*. Higher protein diets can play a role in helping some people lose weight and maintain weight loss. Protein consumption is generally accepted to increase satiety to a greater extent than carbohydrate or fat and may facilitate a reduction in energy consumption. This helps to overcome the ‘feeling hungry’ that people often cite as one of the key reasons they fail to achieve weight loss goals.
  • Lean chicken cuts are low in fat and, importantly, over 55% of the total fat content is unsaturated fat (see:
  • Lean chicken is extremely versatile, easy to cook with and tasty!

Add to this the fact that lean chicken remains by far the most affordable lean meat on the Australian market, and you have several very good reasons why lean chicken meat can help you out with your ‘bottom line’!

I’d encourage everyone to get involved in a Healthy Weight Week event – go to to find one in your area. Personally, I’m going along to the cook-off with the Week’s Ambassadors Callum Hann and Themis Chryssidis ( being held in Pitt Street Mall, Sydney on Monday 13 February to kick start the Week. I understand that chicken will be on their menu!

AHWW17.chook17.amend 8feb

Download the great ‘Everyday Healthy’ recipe book full of healthy meal options to prepare at home – it’s free – and check out these great chicken dishes: Cajun chicken burger with yogurt sauce and purple slaw, Allspice chicken with chimichurri and brown rice, or Poached chicken salad with Chinese cabbage, coriander and sesame – YUM!

Four key facts about Australian meat chickens

With Christmas and a new year just around the corner, it seems a good time to remind readers of some of the key facts about Australian meat chickens, including what they look like and how they are reared.

Since this is about the chickens themselves, I’m going to focus on four key facts…the ones that in visual depictions and in words meat chickens are most often misrepresented.

Key Facts Infographic

1. In Australia, if its red or brown, it’s not a meat chicken

How often do you see news articles or other stories about the Australian chicken industry with images depicting red or brown coloured chickens (often in cages as well, another sign that they’ve got the wrong bird; more on that later).
Well, guess what? Those red or brown birds are almost certainly egg laying hens, not meat chickens.

Current Australian meat chicken strains are almost exclusively white feathered – at least they are after they shed their fluffy yellow baby down, a process which starts from about a week of age.

Why are they white? Well, partly it’s to do with the original breeds that were selected to be crossed to create a heavier, meatier chicken hybrid strain specifically for meat production. These efforts commenced in the 1950s when white Plymouth Rock chickens were crossed with white Cornish chickens to produce the original hybrid meat chicken strains. However, white feathering has, in itself, been seen as a desirable characteristic for a meat chicken (and has generally been preferentially selected for over the years) because it results in a more visually appealing carcass. As it is almost impossible to remove 100% of pin feathers from all birds during processing, and because coloured feathers contrast so much with the skin colour, they are undesirable from a customer appeal perspective. It’s worth noting that it’s conceivable that different coloured breeds of meat chicken may be adopted in Australia in the future, but for now, pretty much all meat chickens in Australia are white.

In appearance, today’s meat chickens also look ‘chunkier’ than egg laying chickens as they have been bred, using conventional genetic selection techniques, to carry more meat.

For more information about the breeds used by the two industries see my earlier blog: meat chickens vs laying chickens.

2. Both male and female chickens are used

Both male and female chickens are used to produce chicken meat, as is the case right around the world.

Unlike the case for the egg industry, where only hens are required to lay the eggs that are sold for human consumption, both male and female meat chickens can be, and are grown for meat and are equally valued by the chicken meat industry.

More information on the differences between male and female meat chickens in terms of how they look or how they grow can be found in a previous blog: Are meat chickens male or female?

3. No hormones are used

How many times have you heard people talk about hormones in chicken meat? …that hormones are ‘fed’ to chickens? … that the hormones in chicken meat are causing an epidemic of early maturity/puberty in our young kids today?
Well, guess what? All the above are simply UNTRUE!
The origin of the “hormones in chicken” myth, and why they are neither used or useful in chicken production are explained in the blog: The Hormone Myth.

4. Meat chickens are never reared in cages

Australian meat chickens are grown on the floor of large sheds or barns. The floor of the barn will always be covered with a bedding material (the industry calls this bedding ‘litter’), which comprises some form of absorbent material, for example wood shavings, rice hulls or chopped straw.

If you would like to get an idea of what an Australian chicken farm looks like, there are plenty of photos on the ACMF website of both the exterior and inside a typical chicken shed (see for some examples).

What about the photos you see in the media and elsewhere of chickens confined to cages? They are photos of egg laying chickens. Cages are often used in the egg industry.

For more explanation of how Australian meat chickens are housed, have a look at this earlier blog: Meat chickens and cages?

Thanks for your interest in my blog this year and for sharing it with your online communities.

Wishing all my blog readers and their loved ones a safe and happy Christmas. Chook Chat will return in February 2017.